Since the precolonial days, Gwalior was a significant place because of its location and is a commanding fort. Gwalior state was named after the old town of Gwalior and was ruled by the Sindhia dynasty. The foundation of this Indian kingdom was laid in the early 18th century by Ranoji Sindhia, a part of the Maratha Confederacy. During the reign of Mahadji Sindhia(1761-1794) the state became a powerful kingdom in North India.
It was the successive Anglo - Maratha Wars that brought Gwalior State under the British administration. In the colonial period it became a princely state and was the largest princely state in the Central India Agency. The Central India Agency was under the political control of the Gwalior residency.
It was in the year 1936 that Gwalior Residency was detached from the Central India Agency and was made accountable to the Governor General of India. After India`s independence in 1947, the Gwalior State was included in the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat.
The State of Gwalior was surrounded by the British districts of Jalaun and Jhansi of the United Provinces and the Saugor District of the Central Provinces in the east, the states of Bhopal, Khilchipur and Rajgarh in the south and the states of Jhalawar, tonk and Kotah of the Rajputana Agency in the west.Occupying an area of 64,856 sq. km. (25,041sq. miles.) the state was divided into two parts, the Gwalior or the Northern section and the Malwa section. The northern section spanned over an area of 44,082 sq. km. and was surrounded on the north, northeast and northwest by the Chambal River.This section comprised of seven zilas or districts which were Gwalior Gird, Bhind, Sheopur, Tonwarghar, Isagarh, Bhilsa and Narwar. The second part or the Malwa section was spread over an area of 20,774 sq. km. The city of Ujjain came under the Malwa section. This section consisted of four zilas Ujjain, Mandsaur, Shajapur and Amjhera. The zilas were under the control of the subahs or district magistrates which were further divided into parganas. Under one pargana there were several villages which were agained grouped under a patwari.
Ranoji Sindhia, the founder of the Sindhia kingdom was an ordinary attendant of Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao. With his courage and determination, he became a trusted member of the Marathas and was given the responsibility to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi in the Malwa districts. Gradully the Sindhia empire developed with the headquarters in the ancient city of Ujjain. Sindhia died in 1745 and was succeded by his son Jayapa. He was followed by his son Jankoji who was put to death after he became a prisoner of war in the Third Battle of Panipat. He was succeeded by Mahadji Sindhia who ruled from 1761 to 1794. Mahadji left no successors and after him Daulat Rao, grandson of Mahadji`s brother Tukaji became the ruler of the kingdom. When Daulat Rao died in 1827 he was succeeded by Jankojirao II Sindhia who was not his own son but a legitimate and distant member of the family. Jankojirao died in 1843 and was succeeded by Jayajirao Sindhia. Jayajirao died in 1886 and was succeeded by his son Madhav Rao Sindhia. George Jivajirao Sindhia ruled the state of Gwalior as for a short time after which India attained her independence.
Gwalior is now an important commercial city in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
Gwalior coin: Javajirao Shinde
This coin is struck in copper. The obverse shows the crude style "pug-nose" bust of Jivaji rao Shinde/Sindhia. The lettering in Hindi reads "Shri Javaji Rao Shinde Alija Bahadaur, Gwalior". Jivaji Rao was the last ruler of the state of Gwalior in the Sindhia dynasty, until India gained its independence in 1947. After India got its independence, the state of Gwalior was incorporated in the republic of India.
Gwalior coin Pav ana
The reverse shows the coat of arms of state of Gwalior. The lettering at the top reads "pav ana", which means 1/4 anna, the denomination of this coin. The lettering at the bottom reads "Samvat1986". This is the date of the coin. The dating is done in Vikram Samvat(VS). In Vikram Samvat, the counting had started from 57 BC. So we can simply subtract 57 from the year. 1986VS - 57 = 1929 AD.
coins of Gwalior state: Madhavrao Scindia
coins of Gwalior state: Jivajirao Scindia