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Tuesday, December 8, 2009

One rupee coins: Republic India - X

1 Rupee: JP Narayan
1 rupee jay prakash narayanJay Prakash Narayan was also popularly known as JP, and is well known for leading the opposition against Indira Gandhi.

He had called for a total revolution in Bihar but Indira Gandhi implemented the emergency rule bypassing all laws, even as JP Narayan had called for resignation from the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi. He gathered a large crowd of about 100,000 at Ramlila grounds and recited poetry by Ramdhari Singh Dinkar:" singhasan khali karo ke janata ati hai".

It was under his guidance that the Janata party came into power for the first time after the emergency had been revoked. In 1977 he had a kidney failure and had to be on dialysis for the rest of his life. In March 1979, he had a very deteriorating health and was erroneously declared dead and there was widespread mourning in the country: closure of parliament and government bodies, schools , shops and all. When he got to know of this mistake a few weeks later, he smiled.

He passed away in October 1979.

1 Rupee: Quit India Movement
1 rupee quit india movementIndia was under British rule for about 200 years and in the first half of the 20th century, the freedom struggle was greatly influenced by people like Mahatma Gandhi and their ideas and principles of non-violence which struck a chord with the masses as the majority of the population of India is peace loving. On the verge of the second world war, the quit India movement was started in India in 1942; and this coin was released on the occasion of 50 years or golden jubilee of the quit India movement.

With the outbreak of the war in 1939, Britain had declared war on Germany. Churchill had become Prime Minister and India's support was required as India was a colony of Britain only. Gandhi declined support as India was against Fascism and they saw British colonialism to be no different than German totalitarianism. The viceroy said that after the war was waged for peace and after it finishes, changes would be made in the Act of 1935. And Gandhi said " We have asked for bread and got a stone in return." This was the primary cause for the quit India movement of 1942. Another important reason was the failure of the Cripps commission. sir Stafford Cripps was sent to India to talk terms and lots was offered ; but after the war ceased. This was perceived to be a "post dated cheque on a crashing bank. Other factors were the Japanese invasion of India, unrest in East Bengal and and growing feeling that British were unable to protect India and its interests.

The Mahatma had said that the presence of the British was an open invitation to the Japanese, and their removal from the scene would remove the bait... Following this statement , he was arrested shortly afterward; along with other leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Gandhi's cry of do or die reached the masses and the country erupted in the quit India movement. This movement was marked by four phases:
1)There were mass strikes, demonstrations, protests and rallies
2) in the second stage there were some violent incidents.Mobs targeted government and municipal buildings like post office and railway stations. Some were set on fire , and in some firings a number of women and children died
3)It is said that in the third stage there were incidents of the mob throwing bombs at the police.
4)The last stage went peaceful until the release of Gandhi in 1944 when the movement was called off.

1 Rupee: Food and environment
1 rupee food and environment


  1. ab jyada to kya bolu

    just want to say

    that best isnt enough for u

    u r ultimate

    keep it up dear